AMA Citation Style
American Medical Association Manual of
Style, 9th edition
- References should represent the most recent and pertinent literature
- References should be cited within the text using superscript numbers.
- In the bibliography, list items numerically in the order they are cited
in your paper.
- Cite your sources sequentially (starting with 1, 2, 3, etc.)
- "Quotes are cited at the end of a sentence" (quote number here).
- Source material drawn upon is cited at the end of a sentence before the
period (here). Or at the end of a paragraph, outside the period.
- Double-space bibliographic sources
- Do not alphabetize bibliography.
- For articles having up to four authors, list all.
- For more than four authors, list three, followed by et al.
- Data given in tables may be commented upon but may not be repeated in
- Charts, graphs, images or tables that you do not create must be properly
- If you are using a typewriter and cannot use italics, use underlining.
Authors: use the initials of first and second names with no spaces.
- Include up to six authors.
- If there are more than six authors, include the first three,
followed by et al.
- If no author is given, start with the title.
- Books: include the edition statement (ex: 2nd ed. or Rev ed.) between
the title and publisher location if it is not the first edition.
- Journals: abbreviate titles as shown in Index Medicus. If the journal
does not paginate continuously through the volume, include the month (and
- Places: abbreviate states, do not include postal codes.
- Web Sites: include the name of the web page, the name of the entire web
site, the full date of the page (if available), and the date you looked at
it. Remove the hyperlink.
- For documents and situations not listed here, see the printed version of
the AMA manual.
- A similar styleguide is the Uniform
Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals
Examples of AMA style references:
- Archive Document
Author Last Name, First Initial. Electronic Document Title. Publisher
City, State/Author City, State/or Conference City, State: Conference,
Meeting or Paper Title; Date Published or Presented. Name of Archive.
Author Last Name, First Initial. Title of Book. Publisher City:
Publisher; Date Published.
- Book Article or Chapter
Author Last Name, First Initial. Book Article or Chapter Title. In:
Editor Last Name First Initial, ed. Book Title. Publisher City, Publisher
State: Publisher; Year Published:Pages.
- Journal or Magazine Article (with volume numbers)
Author Last Name, First Initial. Title of Article. Title of Journal or
Magazine. Year Published;Volume #:Pages.
- Newspaper, Journal or Magazine Article (without volume numbers)
Author Last Name, First Initial. Title of Article. Title of Newspaper,
Journal or Magazine. Month Day, Date:SectionNumer&PageNumber.
- Encyclopedia Article
Author Last Name, First Initial. Article Name. In: Last Name First
Initial, editorial director; Last Name First Initial, ed-in-chief; Last Name
First Initial, managing ed. Encyclopedia Name. Vol #. (Edition #) ed.
Publisher City, Publisher State: Publisher; Year Published:Pages.
- Web Site
Author Last Name, First Initial. Web Page Title. Web Site Title. Year
Published/Posted. Available at: http://URL Accessed Month Day, Year.
- Journal Article on the Internet
Author Last Name, First Initial. Article Name. Journal Name. Year
Published; Journal:237-247. Available at: http://URL Accessed Month Day,