PHILOS 101 Introduction to Philosophy, Study Guide for Test #3 (May 29th)
You should bring a Scantron, number 2 pencil, and a blue test booklet to the test.
The test will consist of multiple-choice, definitions, short-answers, and essays. You will have entire class period in which to complete the test.
The following is material that will likely be on the test.
Questions about political philosophy:
What is the difference between a negative right and a positive right? What are some examples of negative and positive rights that exist in contemporary American society?
What are the different forms of government?
What form of government does Hobbes advocate?
What are his three laws of nature?
What is a social contract?
What is the Ring of Gyges story? Who wrote it? What is it supposed to show about politics?
What is the Leviathan?
What are some problems with Hobbes' view?
How does Locke's view of government differ from Hobbes'?
How does Locke view property?
What are Locke's views on revolution?
What is Nozick's point about Wilt Chamberlain?
What are some problems with Locke's views of government?
What is Rawls' original position? How does it relate to the veil of ignorance?
What two principles of justice does Rawls argue rational, self-interested agents under a veil of ignorance will choose?
How would Marx and Engels respond to Locke or Nozick?
What is communism?
What is the labor theory of value?
What is class conflict? What two classes does Marx analyze?
What is exploitation?
What is ideology?
How did Marx view religion?
What is planned obsolescence?
How does Marx envision communist societies coming into existence?
What are some problems with Marx's views?
The material below will cover the remaining points on the exam:
Questions about metaphysics:
What do the following terms mean: determinism, incompatibilism, compatibilism, indeterminism?
Why do thinkers like d'Holbach think free will is an illusion? What does he think would need to exist in order for us to make free choices?
What is the connection between free will and moral responsibility? Can we be morally responsible if we are not free to choose?
How does Stace's compatibilism attempt to redefine free will? What criterion does Stace introduce to show that determinism is compatible with free will? Why does Stace think free will couldn't exist if our choices were not determined?
What is the Chicken Sandwich thought experiment?
How does James' evaluate compatibilism (soft determinism)? Does he think it is a convincing theory? Why or why not?
What is a dilemma? In what sense is determinism a dilemma for James?
What is the Oxford/Divinity St. thought experiment? What point about free will is it meant to illustrate?
What are judgments of regret? How does James connect regret with free will?
Why does James think indeterminism is a better theory than determinism?
What is pragmatism? How is James' evaluation of free will pragmatic?
Be prepared to discuss criticisms of d'Holbach's, Stace's, and James' arguments.
Questions about existentialism:
Explain what existentialism is with reference to the following: alienation, death, the absurd, existence precedes essence, the other, bad faith.
Who wrote the diary? (This question is more difficult to answer than it might at first seem.)
What is the aesthetic? How does Johannes exemplify this sphere?
What is the ethical? How does the ethical differ from the aesthetic and the religious? What does it mean to “choose oneself in despair”? With which pseudonym is the ethical most closely associated?
What is the religious? With what biblical figure is this sphere most closely associated? Fear and Trembling is attributed to Johannes de Silentio. What is the significance of this name?
In what sense is the religious absurd?
What sphere did Kierkegaard personally believe was the best? Why?
Who are the characters in No Exit? What are their individual backgrounds? Their likes and dislikes? Their motives and interests?
Where is the play set? Why did Sartre set the play in this location?
Why is the play called No Exit? Why do none of the characters leave the room when given the chance? In what sense are they “inseparables”?
Why are there no mirrors or reflective surfaces in the room?
What does the bronze statue on the mantelpiece likely represent?
How do the characters in the play illustrate Sartre’s claim that we are condemned to be free? What does this expression mean?
Questions about the general nature of philosophy and Socrates:
What does the word philosophy literally mean? What are the different branches of philosophy? Describe the person of Socrates. How does he differ from Euthyphro? What is learned ignorance? What did the Oracle say about Socrates? What is an apology? How does Socrates respond to Meletus? What were the charges against Socrates?
Questions about epistemology:
Why must knowledge be certain, according to Descartes?
What is the evil genius?
What evidence is there that the senses deceive us?
What is the difference between a matter of fact and a relation of ideas?
What is the problem of induction?
Explain why Descartes thinks he exists.
What is the difference between empiricism and rationalism? What is a tabula rasa? What is an innate idea? an adventitious idea? a composite idea? What does the wax experiment show about knowledge, according to Descartes?
Why does Descartes think God must exist?
What are impressions? How do they differ from ideas?
What is a tabula rasa?
What are relations of idea?
What are matters of fact?
What is the problem of induction?